Did you know every parent follows a different parenting style to raise their children? However, at the same time, every parent shares some commonalities.
What is Parenting styles?
Parenting style is a combination of strategies used to raise the kids. Diane Baumrind made four categories of different types of parenting styles. These Baumrind parenting styles have different names and characteristics.
Namely, the 4 parenting styles are:
- Authoritarian or Disciplinarian
- Permissive or Indulgent
These parenting styles are based on US culture. Each parenting style differs in: discipline style, nurturance, communication, and expectations.
What are the four parenting styles?
Authoritarian parents are the disciplinarians.
- Parents who follow authoritarian style believe in strict discipline with no space for negotiations. Punishment for mistakes is common.
- One way communication is followed, Parent to Child. Parents do not explain rules to their children.
- The parents are less nurturing.
- They have high expectations with very little flexibility.
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Indulgent or permissive parents let their children do what they want and offer little to no guidance. They are like friends to their kids.
- These parents do follow disciplinary style. They impose limited or no rules and allow children to solve the problems on their own.
- Communication is open and two way. Parents let children make their own decision rather than giving directions.
- Parents are very warm and nurturing.
Parents who follow this style of parenting allow their children to complete freedom and do not interfere with their life. Some do this consciously while some are least interested in parenting.
- No discipline style is followed. An uninvolved parent will let the child do what he wants. This mostly because of a lack of care or information.
- Communication is limited.
- Parents are very little nurturing.
- Few or no expectations of children.
These parents are very nurturing and reasonable and have high expectations for children. Parents who follow this parenting style raise disciplined and self-reliant children. This is the best parenting style of all.
- Disciplinary rules are set with reasons explained.
- Communication is frequent and two way to suit children understanding
- Authoritative parents are nurturing.
- Expectations and goals are set high but stated clearly.
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Let’s learn about the effects of parenting style on a child’s development. There are many pieces of research about the effects of parenting styles on children.
Some of the findings from those researches are:-
Authoritarian parents raise proficient and obedient children, but they lack inner happiness, self-esteem, and social competence.
Authoritative parents are successful in raising happy, successful, and capable children.
Permissive parent’s children are less happy and low in self-regulation. These children do not perform well under the authority and perform badly in schools.
Uninvolved parents are the lowest in all parenting styles. The children will have poor self-control, low self-esteem, and are not competing with their peers.
The Advantages of Authoritative Parenting
Authoritative parents are viewed as fair, reasonable, and children easily comply with their parents. These parents always provide rules with explanations. This way, children are likely to understand these lessons better.
Children’s here do not follow the rules just because of fear of punishment. Instead, these children learn the meaning of rules and their needs. They understand what is wrong and right.
Which Parenting Style Is The Most Effective?
Authoritative parenting styles are considered the best of all different parenting styles. Authoritative parenting style psychology is best for raising happy and successful children.
There are some factors that play an important role in raising a child:
Cultural and Ethnics Differences
Some researchers found that it is not only the authoritative style that fails to raise kids who perform well in school but also parents from different culture, socioeconomic n]background, parental education and income level.
For instance, it was found that African american students who have authoritative parents performed poorly academically. Asian American students perform best with authoritative parents and peer support.
Spain is an example that authoritative and indulgent parenting style leads to good results.
Child’s behaviour also affects the parenting styles and outcome.
For instance, if the kid is sensitive with temperament the parents will be forced to follow authoritarian parenting style. These children are perceived as difficult to handle.
In some cases a child’s own behaviour both aggressive and sociable is correlated with their success.
This shows that parenting styles are not the only factor that affects a child’s outcome. Differences in a child’s temperament and social context makes a difference too.
When you as a parent plan on adopting a certain parenting style, always keep in mind that your child’s success does not depend only on one or two aspects.
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Limitations and Criticisms of Parenting Style Research
Parenting styles and behavior have a correlation which helps in finding a link between different variables. While research has shown evidence for the link between certain parenting styles and patterns of behavior. But a child’s temperament is also a major affecting factor.
There is evidence which shows that child behavior can also affect the parenting style. When children show difficult behavior , they accept less parental control. The child may misbehave and in this case, it is not because of the parent but the parents gave up on their difficult and aggressive child.
Cultural factors are also a major factor impacting a child’s outcome. There is no proven best parenting style that should be followed universally.
A word from fixthelife:
Although there is a conclusion that only the authoritative parenting style should be followed. Parenting styles do affect the child’s behavior and outcome, and so far, the authoritative style has always been linked with positive behaviors. Children grow up to become self-competent and have strong self-esteem.
However, there are so many other factors that also affect the child’s outcome like temperaments, social influence, culture, children’s perception of parental treatment. These factors also play a major role in the behavior of a child.